Translation of key words:
Shang: above, up, upper reach of river, upstream
Xia: below, down, lower reach, downstream
Pu: canal, man-made rivulet
Wai: lower reach of river
Wai Tan (the Bund), word by word, mean outer
shoal of the Wusong River
The word “Shanghai” firstly appeared in the Song Dynasty (960-1279). In order to discharge the floods of Wusong River that emptied into the sea near then-Shanghai, 18 canals were dug then out of the Wusong River. Each canal was called a “pu” in regional dialect. Among these, two canals near the sea were named “Shang Hai Pu” and “Xia Hai Pu” as the former was theoretically closer to the upstream of the Wusong River.
In the same dynasty, due to the prosperity of the liquor-making industry in the then-Shanghai area, an office in charge of the tax collection of liquor-making was instituted near ”Shang Hai Pu” Canal. When Shanghai Town and Shanghai County were officially established in the following Yuan (1271-1368) and Ming (1368-1644) Dynasty, they were both centered on “Shang Hai Pu” district. Since then, the area referred to as Shanghai became more and more well-known among people.
Tanghua is Chinese-style lollipop usually in the form of animals. It is impromptu made by street vendor depending on which animal is selected by people to buy through rotary draw. The more complicated the animal is painted, the less possible would it be pinpointed.
marble slab (drawing board)
scoop (drip the sugar to draw)
cooked brown sugar and maltose
flat shovel (cut, or lift the drawing)
stick (hold the drawing)
bunch of straw or foam block (pierced by sticks to display and sell)
Proclaimer: This article is re-posted from a third-party source:
Mianzi, or face is something that Chinese people think about more than any other. Be it the nation's leaders, or its common citizens, the consideration of saving face is always the first thing they think about before they act. Since face is so important, it's worth asking, what exactly is it?
What is face?
If you check a dictionary, you'll see that the original intended meaning of mianzi (面子) was a noun for the face, surface, or exterior of something. Later, the meaning of the word extended to include someone's feelings or the face value of something. Finally, the word came to mean "fame", "prestige" or "reputation". In the daily lives of Chinese people, the meaning of face is particularly complicated, as giving face (or not) to someone oftentimes isn't communicated directly through words, but is instead something that must be perceived through actions. The absolute concern over saving face (sometimes taken to the extreme) has truly remained a cultural phenomenon unique to Chinese people, and today it's one of the few social elements left that is still inextricably linked with Chinese traditions that are thousands of years old. Unsurprisingly, foreigners upon seeing face-saving measures in action sometimes cannot help but shake their heads and judge it wholly excessive.
"Do not wash your dirty linen in public"
There's a common saying in China that you "do not wash your dirty linen in public" (家丑不可外扬). This saying is synonymous with that of saving face. When something disgraceful happens that could be harmful to the family name or the family, such as an unruly child, domestic abuse, a uxorious husband etc., Chinese would rather repress their feelings inwardly than speak out, for fear that if others knew that they would lose face, and be ridiculed (in broader terms, such "disgraceful" events that happen within China being leaked internationally can also be considered as losing face). This absolute concern about outward appearances can be taken to such extremes that people’s lives become a living hell. For example, when Chinese mediate their domestic disputes, you'll oftentimes hear the following phrase: "swallowing a broken front tooth" (打破门牙往肚里咽), which is to say that they'd rather swallow their own tooth than spit it out and lose face in front of others.
Face as moral integrity?
Saving face can also manifest itself as a form of moral integrity, as seen in such phrases as: "I'd rather starve to death than be disloyal" (饿死事小，失节事大) or "It's better to be destroyed than give up your principals, it's better to die in glory than live in dishonour" (宁为玉碎，不为瓦全). Although equally extreme, concern over this kind of mianzi is at least somewhat admirable. However, more often than not, Chinese people’s concern of saving face really only refers to the concern of saving their own, their family’s or their friend's face, and they could care less about the face of strangers, perhaps even intentionally hurting it. There’s a saying for that too: "good deeds don't leave the house, bad deeds travel thousands of miles" (好事不出门，坏事行千里). Stories from day-to-day life seem to confirm this point: some people are so bored that they cause others to lose face just to pass the time.
Saving face, taken to extremes
1) The happily married couple
Long ago, I was told a near-ridiculous story. An old married couple, who had been together for many decades, had never argued with each other. They had no children, and no one had ever seen either of them do anything unseemly. Nearly all of the people who lived in the area thought that they were the textbook definition of a "harmonious couple" (夫妻和睦), and that their life together must be quite happy. In fact, since their wedding day, this happy old couple had never slept in the same bed, and had never been able to express their feelings to one another. Yet, the vanity for both sides was so strong, and they cared so much about saving face that they never let any of this known, and they absolutely refused to get divorced, so life just dragged on, and on. All for the sake of saving face, they each wore a smile in front of others, while they dried their tears in private.
2) "Treating" and "gifting"
To save face, Chinese people often "treat" others, trying to act bigger than they truly are (打肿脸充胖子). Regardless of whether it is to please a single person or a room full of people, they’ll always usher the waiters to fill teapot or bring another dish out to the already full table, all the while repeatedly apologizing that "there's not enough food". To save face, it is said that Chinese people must "break the pan to sell the iron" (摔锅卖铁) to afford constantly giving gifts to others, and the number of gifting occasions is seemingly endless: weddings, a baby's first month, a 10th birthday, a 40th birthday, a school graduation, enlisting in the military, receiving a job promotion, moving into a new house, birthdays etc. That is to say, saving face causes Chinese people to "eat losses"; they must constantly grin and bear it, for fear that if they don’t, others will gossip about them being stingy. This concern over saving face can even lead people to break the law, get arrested and be carted off to jail.
3) Face and business
All Chinese people are aware that some will "use dirty tricks to mislead their friends" (鬼迷熟人). This saying describes when a consumer continues to buy something from an acquaintance or friend despite being deceived and taken advantage of constantly (via paying for defective, inferior, sub-standard or even dangerous products). Why do such situations keep happening? In short, because Chinese people are so concerned about saving face, they'd rather let their friends cheat them, than yell at them and have people think that they have no self-restraint or lack class. Of course, many businesspersons thoroughly understand this, and make money by deliberately deceiving their friends. China's problematic "debt chain" phenomenon (such as in Wenzhou) is also closely related with company bosses saving face: they'd rather borrow money from multiple parties at increasingly unsustainable interest rates than have others know that their company is broke.
Face throughout history
Chinese people have long held face in the highest regard. As early as the Spring and Autumn Period, there was the "Lintong Dou Bao" story (临潼斗宝), now used as an idiomatic phrase meaning "to show off one's wealth". In the Eastern Jin Dynasty, there were the "Shichong Doufu" and "Guojiu Doufu" stories (石崇和国舅斗富) about competing with each other for wealth. The last emperor of the Sui Dynasty, Yang Di had trees bound in expensive silks and frequently treated guests to fine meals to exert his face-ness. And in more modern times, the list of extravagant face-saving gestures is simply too long to mention.
Is it worth it?
Ostensibly, the act of giving or not giving face – regardless of time, place, or situation – is a unilateral decision. But in reality, face is a bilateral affair. If one person doesn't pay attention to the other person's face, then that other person will not be obligated to return the face, or deal with the constraints of doing so. That is to say, the ones who lose are invariably the ones who are concerned about face: even if you think that suffering financial losses is unimportant as compared to the loss of face, other people will still think that you're stupid and foolish.
If you are looking for an really quiet, historical and multi-cultural old town around Shanghai, seriously you should think about Nanxun. It's a town that cherishes the soul of south Yangtze Delta region. She is regarded as the representing place where the riches in old times assembled, where there are old streets and water channels, exquisite gardens, Anhui-style residential houses, classical western-style architectures and abundant sceneries, where it was said that she had been as rich as the Qing government. Besides, the silk made here won top prizes in World Expo held in London in 1851 and Panama in 1915 respectively. This is the charm of Nanxun.
Nanxun was named Xunxi once upon a time and then the following name of Nanlin, in the end of Southern Song Dynasty, the official name of Nanxun came to being in A.D.1252.
In the area of about two square kilometers of Nanxun, there are national, provincial and city protected sites, 17 altogether. The Jiaye Library, Xiaolianzhuang Lotus Villa, row houses along the canal and the former residence of Zhang Shiming are the highly recommended sites.
Hu Xueyan's (1823-1885) Villa is situated on the Yuanbao Street, a narrow alley nearby the Hefang Street, a famous old commercial street of Hangzhou. It's a typical southeast-China-style complex with houses and gardens of distinct Anhui architecture features. Hu's Villa was built in 1875 at the zenith of his prosperity and was officially open to public since 2001 after the renovation.
The villa has roughly three sections: The middle section is for reception and consultations; the eastern section is for pleasure and relaxation; and the western section is for living. In the villa, gardens, pavilions, terraces, bridges, houses, rockeries, ponds and corridors are ingeniously designed and harmoniously landscaped. Some parts of the villa have western elements as Mr. Hu lived in a time when China was opened up to outside world for trade and cultural exchange.
Hu Xueyan was born in Anhui Province, started off as a counterjumper in a money shop in Hangzhou and eventually passed away in poverty and sorrow. Following the success of his business in running money shops and pawns, he expanded the field to salt, medicine, silk, tea, cloth and arms trade, etc. It's said that in the prime time his overall wealth was half as much as the national treasury of Qing government. Although he cracked up in latter years of his life as he fell victim of political game, Hu Xueyan, who also assumed high position in government as a result of his tremendous impact in business, has been widely recognized as the stereotype of "Red-Top Merchant" (high-ranking government officials wore hat with red top in Qing Dynasty when going to imperial court), a title people use to refer to merchants who are influential in politics as well.
What else noteworthy is the Huqing Yutang Traditional Chinese Medicine Store founded by Hu Xueyan also. It's located on the Hefang Street, some ten minutes walk from the Hu's Villa. A drop-in-on to it would add more content if you intend to visit Hu's Villa.
Over the past several thousand years, silk garments were worn by emperors and the aristocracy as well as the common people. The traditional clothing and accessories of the northern nomads and the Han nationality created a “historic nation of clothing and accessories,” which became a symbol of the culture of the Chinese nation.
Clothing from the Warring States to Han Dynasty (475 BC-220 AD)
In light of the theory “Qian is heaven, Kun is earth”, in early times Chinese people wore “Yi as tops and Shang (skirts) below.” From the Warring States Period to the Han Dynasty, Shenyi (one-piece robes with the top and bottom sewn together) was worn by both men and women. Shenyi usually took two forms: Qufu, with a slanting opening, and Zhifu, with a straight vertical opening. The robe with an embroidered body, jin-silk trim and wide sleeves was popular among the aristocrats of the time.
Costumes of the Jin Dynasty and Tang Dynasty (265 AD-907 AD)
The Jin and Tang dynasties, when exotic fashions were absorbed through the Silk Road, are the most brilliant chapters in the history of ancient Chinese costume. Of great influence was Hufu, a style of dress characterized by narrow sleeves and long trousers, which before long replaced traditional Chinese robes. Chinese costume, especially women’s wear, attained an unprecedented elegance at the time.
Costumes of Song and Yuan Dynasties (960-1368)
The Song and Yuan dynasties witnessed another integration of costumes among different nations. Traditional costume style of the Han people was fundamentally preserved in the Song Dynasty. Men usually wore gowns with round collars, while women wore skirts with matching jackets. Such style was partially changed in the Yuan Dynasty founded by the Mongols. People in the north wore shining gilded robe made of Nasiji and leather boots, while most people in the south still wore Han-Chinese garments.
Costume of Liao Dynasty (916-1125)
The "One country, Two systems" policy was adopted during the Liao Dynasty founded by the Khitans. On one hand, they kept their traditional nomadic features, and a typical Khitan costume consists of a long robe with left opening, narrow sleeves and central vent on the back, a pair of boots, a waistband on which a leather bag hung. On the other hand, some people were also allowed to wear traditional Han-style costumes.
Costume of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)
After reunifying China, Zhu Yuanzhang, the founder of Ming Dynasty, ordered the people to revert to Han Chinese style and established new rules for clothing and accessories in 1370. The characteristic garments of the Ming Dynasty were gowns with loose sleeves. In the early Ming, officials began to differentiate their ranks with mandarin squares. At meanwhile, ladies mainly wore jackets and skirts.
Costume of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911)
After the rulers of the Qing Dynasty forged their way through the Shanhai Pass, they enforced the costume style of the Manchus on the Han Chinese people. In 1761, Emperor Qianlong published a set of rules for Manchu costumes. However, men’s daily wear consisted mainly of robes and Magua, a mandarin jacket worn over a gown. Manchu women wore mandarin gowns long enough to cover their feet. Han women were not required to obey this system and could still were the typical top and skirt.
is a place for travellers to plan their tours and it's a place for tour guides and travellers to meet. It was previously focused solely on China, but as of June 2011, it is now open to the entire world.
Here are some of the articles created by me, while adopted by Synotrip as editor's picks on its website previously.
Remote Ancient Times:
Xia (2100BC - 1600BC), Shang (1600BC - 1100BC), Zhou (1100BC - 221BC)
Spring and Autumn Period (770BC - 476BC)
Warring States Period (476BC - 256BC)
After-Qin Feudal Dynasties:
Qin (221BC - 206BC) - China became a unified nation for the first time
Han (206BC - 220AD)
Three Kingdoms Period (220AD - 280AD) - split
Jin (265AD - 420AD) - split
Northen and Southern (420AD - 589AD) - split
Sui (581AD - 618AD)
Tang (618AD - 907AD)
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (907AD - 960AD) - split
Song (960AD - 1279AD) - unified in northern Song, split in Southern Song
Yuan (1279AD - 1368AD)
Ming (1368AD - 1644AD)
Qing (1644AD - 1911AD)
Administrative Divisions (34):
*Province: 23 (including Taiwan)
*Autonomous Region: 5 (Tibet, Xinjiang Uyghur, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia Hui, Guangxi Zhuang)
*Municipality: 4 (Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, Chongqing)
*Special Administrative Region: 2 (Hongkong, Macau)
***Taiwan (claimed by the PRC, controlled by the Republic of China)
>The People's Republic of China (PRC), established in 1949, commonly known as China, has control over mainland China and the largely self-governing territories of Hong Kong (since 1997) and Macau (since 1999) as well as many islands.
>The Republic of China (ROC) established in 1912 in mainland China, now commonly known as Taiwan, since 1945 has had control over the island of Taiwan and a few other outlying islands.
Shanghai is one of the largest cities by population (23 millions) in China and the world. The city is located in the middle of China’s east coast, and sits at the mouth of the Yangtze River. Due to its rapid growth over the last two decades it has again become a global city, exerting influence over diverse perspectives.
Once a fishing and textiles town, Shanghai grew into importance in the 19th century due to its favourable port location and was one of the cities opened to foreign trade by the 1842 Treaty of Nanjing which was signed with disgrace after China lost the Opium War to British. The city then flourished as a centre of commerce between east and west, and became a multinational hub of finance and business in the 1930s.
In 1990, the economic reforms introduced by Deng Xiaoping resulted in an intense re-development of the city, aiding the return of finance and foreign investment to the city. Shanghai is now aimed at being international centers in the fields of finance, commerce, convention and shipping in the future.